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handsomX authored 2019-09-23 20:01 . 'concurrency'

Java 中锁之间的对比

synchronized 和 java.util.concurrent.lock.Lock 之间的区别

  • 实现层面不一样。synchronized 是 Java 关键字,JVM层面 实现加锁和释放锁;Lock 是一个接口,在代码层面实现加锁和释放锁
  • 是否自动释放锁。synchronized 在线程代码执行完或出现异常时自动释放锁;Lock 不会自动释放锁,需要在 finally {} 代码块显式地中释放锁
  • 是否一直等待。synchronized 会导致线程拿不到锁一直等待;Lock 可以设置尝试获取锁或者获取锁失败一定时间超时
  • 获取锁成功是否可知。synchronized 无法得知是否获取锁成功;Lock 可以通过 tryLock 获得加锁是否成功
  • 功能复杂性。synchronized 加锁可重入、不可中断、非公平;Lock 可重入、可判断、可公平和不公平、细分读写锁提高效率

java.util.concurrent.lock.Lock 与 java.util.concurrent.lock.ReadWriteLock 之间的区别

  • ReadWriteLock 定义了获取读锁和写锁的接口,读锁之间不互斥,非常适合读多、写少的场景

适用场景

  • JDK 1.6 开始,对 synchronized 方式枷锁进行了优化,加入了偏向锁、轻量级锁和锁升级机制,性能得到了很大的提升。性能与 ReentrantLock 差不多
  • 读多写少的情况下,考虑使用 ReadWriteLock

synchronized、ReentrantLock、ReentrantReadWriteLock 启动 990 个线程读共享变量,10 个线程写共享变量

package constxiong.concurrency.a020;

import java.util.ArrayList;
import java.util.List;
import java.util.UUID;
import java.util.concurrent.locks.Lock;
import java.util.concurrent.locks.ReadWriteLock;
import java.util.concurrent.locks.ReentrantLock;
import java.util.concurrent.locks.ReentrantReadWriteLock;

/**
 * JDK 1.8 中锁性能的测试
 * @author ConstXiong
 */
public class TestLockPerformance {
	
	public static Object obj = new Object();//用于 synchronized 获取锁
	
	public static Lock lock = new ReentrantLock();//可重入锁
	
	public static ReadWriteLock readWriteLock = new ReentrantReadWriteLock();//读写锁
	
	public static final int READ = 0;
	
	public static final int WRITE = 1;
	
	// uuid,一个随机字符串
	public static String uuid = UUID.randomUUID().toString();

	public static void main(String[] args) throws InterruptedException {
//		testSynchronized(1000);
		
		testReentrantLock(1000);
		
//		testReadWriteLock(1000);
	}
	
	public static void testSynchronized(int threadNum) throws InterruptedException {
		long t1 = System.currentTimeMillis();
		List<Thread> tList = new ArrayList<Thread>();
		//启动 threadNum - 向上取整 (0.01 * threadNum) 个线程读 uuid, 向上取整 (0.01 * threadNum) 个线程写 uuid
		for (int i = 0; i < threadNum; i++) {
			Thread t;
			if (i % 100 == 0) {
				t = new Thread(new WorkerSynchronized(WRITE));
			} else {
				t = new Thread(new WorkerSynchronized(READ));
			}
			t.start();//启动线程
			tList.add(t);
		}
		
		for (Thread t : tList) {
			t.join();
		}
		
		long t2 = System.currentTimeMillis();
		System.out.println("testSynchronized 耗时:" + (t2 - t1));
	}
	
	public static void testReentrantLock(int threadNum) throws InterruptedException {
		long t1 = System.currentTimeMillis();
		List<Thread> tList = new ArrayList<Thread>();
		//启动 threadNum - 向上取整 (0.01 * threadNum) 个线程读 uuid, 向上取整 (0.01 * threadNum) 个线程写 uuid
		for (int i = 0; i < threadNum; i++) {
			Thread t;
			if (i % 100 == 0) {
				t = new Thread(new WorkerReentrantLock(WRITE));
			} else {
				t = new Thread(new WorkerReentrantLock(READ));
			}
			t.start();//启动线程
			tList.add(t);
		}
		
		for (Thread t : tList) {
			t.join();
		}
		
		long t2 = System.currentTimeMillis();
		System.out.println("testReentrantLock 耗时:" + (t2 - t1));
	}
	
	public static void testReadWriteLock(int threadNUm) throws InterruptedException {
		long t1 = System.currentTimeMillis();
		List<Thread> tList = new ArrayList<Thread>();
		//启动 threadNum - 向上取整 (0.01 * threadNum) 个线程读 uuid, 向上取整 (0.01 * threadNum) 个线程写 uuid
		for (int i = 0; i < threadNUm; i++) {
			Thread t;
			if (i % 100 == 0) {
				t = new Thread(new WorkerReadWriteLock(WRITE));
			} else {
				t = new Thread(new WorkerReadWriteLock(READ));
			}
			t.start();//启动线程
			tList.add(t);
		}
		
		for (Thread t : tList) {
			t.join();
		}
		
		long t2 = System.currentTimeMillis();
		System.out.println("testReadWriteLock 耗时:" + (t2 - t1));
	}
	
}

//工作线程,使用 synchronized 关键字加锁
class WorkerSynchronized implements Runnable {
	//0-read;1-write
	private int type;
	
	WorkerSynchronized(int type) {
		this.type = type;
	}
	
	//加锁读 TestLockPerformance.uuid 变量,并打印
	private void read() {
		synchronized (TestLockPerformance.obj) {
			//休眠 20 毫秒,模拟任务执行耗时
			try {
				Thread.sleep(20);
			} catch (InterruptedException e) {
				e.printStackTrace();
			}
			System.out.println(Thread.currentThread().getName() + 
					" read uuid = " +  TestLockPerformance.uuid);
		}
	}
	
	//加锁写 TestLockPerformance.uuid 变量,并打印
	private void write() {
		synchronized (TestLockPerformance.obj) {
			//休眠 20 毫秒,模拟任务执行耗时
			try {
				Thread.sleep(20);
			} catch (InterruptedException e) {
				e.printStackTrace();
			}
			TestLockPerformance.uuid = UUID.randomUUID().toString();
			System.out.println(Thread.currentThread().getName() + 
					" write uuid = " +  TestLockPerformance.uuid);
		}
	}
	
	@Override
	public void run() {
		//type = 0,线程读 TestLockPerformance.uuid 变量
		if (type == 0) {
			read();
		//type = 1,线程生成 uuid,写入 TestLockPerformance.uuid 变量
		} else {
			write();
		}
	}
}

//工作线程,使用 ReentrantLock 加锁
class WorkerReentrantLock implements Runnable {
	//0-read;1-write
	private int type;
	
	WorkerReentrantLock(int type) {
		this.type = type;
	}
	
	//加锁读 TestLockPerformance.uuid 变量,并打印
	private void read() {
		TestLockPerformance.lock.lock();
		try {
			//休眠 20 毫秒,模拟任务执行耗时
			try {
				Thread.sleep(20);
			} catch (InterruptedException e) {
				e.printStackTrace();
			}
			System.out.println(Thread.currentThread().getName() + 
					" read uuid = " +  TestLockPerformance.uuid);
		} finally {
			TestLockPerformance.lock.unlock();
		}
		
	}
	
	//加锁写 TestLockPerformance.uuid 变量,并打印
	private void write() {
		TestLockPerformance.lock.lock();
		try {
			//休眠 20 毫秒,模拟任务执行耗时
			try {
				Thread.sleep(20);
			} catch (InterruptedException e) {
				e.printStackTrace();
			}
			TestLockPerformance.uuid = UUID.randomUUID().toString();
			System.out.println(Thread.currentThread().getName() + 
					" write uuid = " +  TestLockPerformance.uuid);
		} finally {
			TestLockPerformance.lock.unlock();
		}
	}
	
	@Override
	public void run() {
		//type = 0,线程读 TestLockPerformance.uuid 变量
		if (type == 0) {
			read();
		//type = 1,线程生成 uuid,写入 TestLockPerformance.uuid 变量
		} else {
			write();
		}
	}
}


//工作线程,使用 ReentrantReadWriteLock 关键字加锁
class WorkerReadWriteLock implements Runnable {
	//0-read;1-write
	private int type;
	
	WorkerReadWriteLock(int type) {
		this.type = type;
	}
	
	//加锁读 TestLockPerformance.uuid 变量,并打印
	private void read() {
		TestLockPerformance.readWriteLock.readLock().lock();
		try {
			//休眠 20 毫秒,模拟任务执行耗时
			try {
				Thread.sleep(20);
			} catch (InterruptedException e) {
				e.printStackTrace();
			}
			System.out.println(Thread.currentThread().getName() + 
					" read uuid = " +  TestLockPerformance.uuid);
		} finally {
			TestLockPerformance.readWriteLock.readLock().unlock();
		}
	}
	
	//加锁写 TestLockPerformance.uuid 变量,并打印
	private void write() {
		TestLockPerformance.readWriteLock.writeLock().lock();
		try {
			//休眠 20 毫秒,模拟任务执行耗时
			try {
				Thread.sleep(20);
			} catch (InterruptedException e) {
				e.printStackTrace();
			}
			TestLockPerformance.uuid = UUID.randomUUID().toString();
			System.out.println(Thread.currentThread().getName() + 
					" write uuid = " +  TestLockPerformance.uuid);
		} finally {
			TestLockPerformance.readWriteLock.writeLock().unlock();
		}
	}
	
	@Override
	public void run() {
		//type = 0,线程读 TestLockPerformance.uuid 变量
		if (type == 0) {
			read();
		//type = 1,线程生成 uuid,写入 TestLockPerformance.uuid 变量
		} else {
			write();
		}
	}
}

调用测试方法

testSynchronized(1000);

耗时

Thread-0 write uuid = b7fb63d7-79cc-4cc0-84ed-5a9cd4de6824
Thread-252 read uuid = b7fb63d7-79cc-4cc0-84ed-5a9cd4de6824
Thread-251 read uuid = b7fb63d7-79cc-4cc0-84ed-5a9cd4de6824
.
.
.
Thread-255 read uuid = d666bfe6-dc71-4df2-882a-d530a59d7e92
Thread-254 read uuid = d666bfe6-dc71-4df2-882a-d530a59d7e92
Thread-253 read uuid = d666bfe6-dc71-4df2-882a-d530a59d7e92
testSynchronized 耗时:22991

调用测试方法

testReentrantLock(1000);

耗时

Thread-0 write uuid = 4352eb13-d284-47ec-8caa-fc81d91d08e1
Thread-1 read uuid = 4352eb13-d284-47ec-8caa-fc81d91d08e1
Thread-485 read uuid = 4352eb13-d284-47ec-8caa-fc81d91d08e1
.
.
.
Thread-997 read uuid = 9d7f0a78-5eb7-4506-9e98-e8e9a7a717a5
Thread-998 read uuid = 9d7f0a78-5eb7-4506-9e98-e8e9a7a717a5
Thread-999 read uuid = 9d7f0a78-5eb7-4506-9e98-e8e9a7a717a5
testReentrantLock 耗时:22935

调用测试方法

testReadWriteLock(1000);

耗时

Thread-0 write uuid = 81c13f80-fb19-4b27-9d21-2e99f8c8acbd
Thread-277 read uuid = 81c13f80-fb19-4b27-9d21-2e99f8c8acbd
Thread-278 read uuid = 81c13f80-fb19-4b27-9d21-2e99f8c8acbd
.
.
.
Thread-975 read uuid = 35be0359-1973-4a4f-85b7-918053d841f7
Thread-971 read uuid = 35be0359-1973-4a4f-85b7-918053d841f7
Thread-964 read uuid = 35be0359-1973-4a4f-85b7-918053d841f7
testReadWriteLock 耗时:543

通过耗时测试可以看出,使用 synchronized 和 ReentrantLock 耗时相近;但是由于 990 个线程读,10 个线程写,使用 ReentrantReadWriteLock 耗时 543 毫秒。

PS:JDK 并发包里的工具类,还有很多适合特定场景的工具,后面我们继续探索。



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