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README
Apache-2.0

UJCMS

Java开源内容管理系统(java cms)。使用SpringBoot、MyBatis、Spring Security、Lucene、FreeMarker、TypeScript、Vue3、ElementPlus等技术开发。

技术上尽量选择主流、先进、简单的架构,方便用户进行二次开发。设计上强调“简单”、“灵活”,避免繁杂的设计和实现,降低系统维护成本和二次开发难度。功能使用上也要求“简单”,避免复杂的使用逻辑。

支持信创适配,支持国产服务器、国产操作系统、国产数据库、国产中间件。

QQ交流群:626599871

微信交流群:加作者微信拉入群

UJCMS交流群

技术及功能亮点

自定义字段可查询:所有的自定义字段都可查询增强了系统的灵活性。

自定义字段可视化设计:自定义字段使用拖拽式的可视化设计,所见即所得。

URL地址SEO优化:栏目和文章的动态地址可以通过系统的全局设置功能进行修改。默认的栏目和文章URL地址前缀为/channel/article,可以根据自己的需要修改,如改为/categories/archives。多站点的情况下,子站点URL地址可为目录形式(www.example.com/abc)或次级域名形式(abc.example.com)。

清理垃圾附件:系统使用时,可能会多传、误传图片等附件;在删除文章后,文章中的图片还保留在系统中,产生大量的未使用的垃圾图片和附件。系统中的附件管理可以查看所有未使用的图片和附件,并可对其进行删除。

附件、模板、索引文件独立部署:系统运行时产生的文件可以和程序分开,部署到独立的目录,方便系统备份、升级和管理。比如上传的图片和附件、前台的模板、索引文件,都可以部署到程序以外的目录。

模板文件和CSS、JS在同一目录:模板文件和CSS、JS分开的目录结构,会给模板制作和部署带来很大的不便性。而将模板文件和CSS、JS放在一起的设计,会方便很多。

MyBatis参数化查询:后台数据通常会需要通过不同字段进行搜索,对每个表都写大量的查询,无疑是一项繁重的工作。MyBatis参数化查询功能通过前台传递查询参数,即可实现任意字段及关联表的查询功能(如:Q_title=abc,Q_user-username=test),无需后台编写代码,大幅减少后端的开发工作量。

主副表拆分:对查询量大的复杂表进行主副表拆分,把常用的查询字段放到主表,不常用的字段放到副表,提升大数据量下的性能表现。

环境要求

  • JDK 8、11。
  • MySQL 5.7(8.0)。
  • Tomcat 8.5、9.0 (Servlet 3.1+)。
  • Maven 3.5 或更高版本。
  • 系统后台兼容的浏览器:Chrome、Firefox、Edge。
  • 前台页面兼容的浏览器取决于模板,使用者可以完全控制模板,理论上可以支持任何浏览器。演示模板支持Chrome、Firefox、Edge。

创建数据库

  1. 创建数据库。数据库名可为ujcms或其它任何名称。
  • MySQL,字符集选utf8mb4(不要选择utf8,该字符集可能导致某些特殊字符出现乱码)。
  • 达梦数据库,字符集选UTF-8(不要使用GB18030,该字符集可能导致某些特殊字符出现乱码)。
  • 人大金仓数据库,字符集选UTF8(不要使用GBK,该字符集可能导致某些特殊字符出现乱码)。
  1. 无需执行SQL文件,程序启动时会自动创建表及初始化数据。以后程序升级同样不需要执行SQL升级脚本,程序启动时会判断当前软件版本及数据库表结构版本,自动进行数据库表结构升级。

MySQL表名大小写问题

如果在Windows环境使用MySQL,且以后需要迁移到Linux环境的MySQL,建议将Windows环境的MySQL配置为表名大小写敏感模式。

因为Linux环境下MySQL的表名是大小写敏感的;而在Windows环境下MySQL表名大小写不敏感,且会自动把大写的表名改为小写的表名。从Windows向Linux迁移数据时,本为大写表名的成为了小写表名,导致程序出错。需要手动把小写表名改回大写表名,费时费力且容易出错。

UJCMS系统的表名都为小写,不管在Window还是Linux下都没有问题,但第三方的类库(如Liquibase、Flowable、Quartz等)创建的表则为大写表名。所以Windows环境下也把MySQL设置成表名大小写敏感,有利以后迁移数据。

可修改MySQL配置文件my.ini

[mysqld]
# Windows下表名也区分大小写,与Linux一致。
lower_case_table_names=2

启动程序

  1. 在Eclipse中导入maven项目。点击Eclipse菜单File - Import,选择Maven - Existing Maven Projects。创建好maven项目后,会开始从maven服务器下载第三方jar包(如spring等),需要一定时间,请耐心等待。(另外:Eclipse中会出现红叉的错误警告,如是JavaScript或HTML报错则无需理会,不影响程序正常运行。这是由于Eclipse校验规则误判所致,可以在Eclipse中设置禁止对js文件进行错误校验。)
  2. 修改数据库连接。打开/src/main/resources/application.yaml文件,根据实际情况修改spring.datasource.urlspring.datasource.usernamespring.datasource.password的值。其中spring.datasource.url中的数据库名要和上一步创建的数据库名一致。
  3. 启动程序。在eclipse中,右键点击项目名,选择Run as - Java Application,选择Application - com.ujcms,然后点击OK。也可在左侧导航中找到com.ujcms.cms.Application类并右键点击,选择Run as - Java Application即可直接运行。
  4. 使用 IntelliJ IDEA 开发的,步骤与 Eclipse 类似。打开工程后,等待Maven下载依赖,修改数据库连接,然后直接点击右上角的绿色三角图标(Run 'Application'),即可直接运行。也可在左侧导航中找到com.ujcms.cms.Application类并右键点击,选择Run 'Application'
  5. 首次运行程序,会自动创建数据库表和初始化数据库,需要一些时间,请耐心等待,只要没有出现报错信息,说明程序还在启动中,不要急于关闭程序。直到出现类似com.ujcms.cms.Application: Started Application in xxx seconds信息,代表程序启动完成。如果程序首次启动,还在创建数据库表时,强行关闭了程序;再次启动程序可能会出现类似LockException: Could not acquire change log lockWaiting for changelog lock....的报错信息;此时只要将数据库databasechangeloglock表中数据清空(注意,不是databasechangelog表),也可删除数据库所有表甚至重建数据库,再次启动程序即可继续创建数据库表和初始化数据,正常启动。
  6. 前台地址:http://localhost:8080/,使用手机访问前台或者使用浏览器模拟手机访问前台,会自适应显示手机端的界面。如遇到前台页面没有样式的情况,则是因为没有部署在Tomcat的根目录。如前台首页地址类似为http://localhost:8080/abc,即代表部署在/abc目录下,没有部署在根目录。解决办法请参考下一章节内容。
  7. 后台地址:http://localhost:8080/cp/,用户名:admin,密码:password。后台前端基于开发,如要修改后台界面,请另外下载ujcms-cp项目。
  8. 默认访问地址是http://localhost:8080/,如需修改域名、端口等内容,可分别到后台配置 - 系统设置配置 - 站点设置中修改。
  9. 如需关闭开源版中的商业版提示及功能,可以修改/src/main/resources/application.yaml文件中的ujcms.ep-display: false配置。

常见错误

如出现flowable-eventregistry-db-changelog.xml::1::flowable: Specified key was too long; max key length is 767 bytes等错误信息,则 MySQL 5.7 需要设置innodb_large_prefix=ON;MySQL 5.6 需要设置innodb_large_prefix=1。从 mysql 5.7.7 开始,innodb_large_prefix的默认值就是ON,因此只要MySQL版本大于5.7.7即可避免这个问题。

部署

  • 使用maven进行打包mvn package -P war。会生成target/ujcms-***.war文件和target/ujcms-***目录。
  • 用目录方式部署的,可以将target/ujcms-***/目录下文件复制到tomcat的webapps/ROOT目录下(请先删除原tomcat/webapps目录下所有文件夹)。复制完成后有类似webapps/ROOT/uploads webapps/ROOT/templates webapps/ROOT/WEB-INF等文件夹。
  • 也可使用war包部署,将ujcms-***.war更名为ROOT.war(注意大小写),复制到tomcat的webapps目录下(请先删除原tomcat/webapps目录下所有文件夹)。复制完成后文件地址为webapps/ROOT.war文件。war部署要使用解压模式,tomcat默认就是使用解压模式,如修改过tomcat配置,请检查tomcat/conf/server.xml配置文件中<Host ... unpackWARs="true" ... >的配置项。
  • 需注意/WEB-INF/classes/application.yaml文件中的数据库地址、用户名、密码相关配置是否与部署环境的数据库一致。

jar部署

  • 使用maven进行打包mvn package -P jar
  • 将打包的target/ujcms-***.jar文件复制到部署目录。
  • 在部署目录(即ujcms-***.jar所在目录)新建文件夹static
  • src/main/webapp目录下所有文件复制到上一步新建的static目录下。复制完成后,会有类似static/WEB-INF static/templates等文件夹。
  • 在部署目录运行java -jar ujcms-***.jar命令,即可启动。

完整目录结构:

  • ujcms-***.jar
  • static/WEB-INF/...
  • static/templates/...
  • static/uploads/...
  • static/cp/...

关于部署路径

程序通常在部署在Tomcat根目录,首页访问地址类似http://www.mysite.com/ http://localhost/ http://localhost:8080/。在一些特殊的场合,如在Eclipse默认的Tomcat启动方式,可能将程序部署在某一个路径下,首页访问地址类似http://www.mysite.com/ujcms/ http://localhost/ujcms/ http://localhost:8080/ujcms/。此时访问网站前台会出现样式不能正常显示的情况,可以到后台配置 - 全局设置中设置上下文路径,类似为/ujcms,其中斜杠/不能省略,ujcms为部署目录的路径,如在开发环境,则通常为项目名。

开发环境要避免使用上下文路径,除非网站正式部署时也要部署到相应的路径下,否则在开发环境下上传的图片部署到正式环境时,不能正常显示。因为上传图片时,图片地址会带有上下文路径的信息(如:/ujcms/uploads/...)。

Eclipse默认的tomcat启动方式会将程序部署到特定目录再启动,并不是直接在项目所在目录启动tomcat,这时上传的图片(包括通过系统后台新增和修改的模板)也保存在特定的部署目录,并不会保存在程序所在的目录。当修改了Eclipse源代码或文件,会自动重新部署程序,之前上传的图片会被清空。如果发现在开发环境下上传的图片突然都找不到了,很可能就是这个原因。

综上所述,强烈建议使用之前启动程序中介绍的方式启动程序。

前台模板

网站前台模板位于/src/main/webapp/templates目录,使用Freemarker技术。通过修改模板文件,可以完全控制网站页面显示的内容。

后端技术

  • Spring Boot:提供了对Spring开箱即用的功能。简化了Spring配置,提供自动配置auto-configuration功能。
  • Spring MVC:MVC框架,使用方便,Bug较少。
  • Spring Security:安全组件。
  • MyBatis:持久化框架。
  • Lucene:全文检索组件。

后台前端技术

  • TypeScript: JavaScript的一个超集。
  • Vue3:JavaScript框架。
  • ElementPlus:Vue 3 UI 框架。
  • Vite: 下一代前端开发与构建工具。
  • Tailwind CSS: 功能类优先的 CSS 框架。
  • VueRouter: Vue 路由组件。
  • VueI18n: Vue 国际化组件。
  • Tinymce: 富文本编辑器。

网站前端技术

网站前端技术可以使用传统的HTML(Freemarker),通过UJCMS提供的Freemarker的自定义标签获取数据;也可以使用前后端分离的vue或react,通过调用API获取数据。

由于前后端分离的方式对搜索引擎不友好,对于需要通过搜索引擎推广的网站不建议采用。

演示站使用传统的HTML(Freemarker),使用到以下一些技术:

  • Freemarker
  • HTML、CSS、JS
  • Bootstrap
  • JQuery
  • Axios

目录结构

  • src
    • main
      • java
        • com/ujcms/cms
          • core
            • domain:实体类
            • generator:生成功能(包括静态页生成,全文索引生成)
            • listener:监听类(包括数据删除的监听)
            • lucene:全文检索功能
            • mapper:MyBatis Mapper Java 文件
            • security:安全相关功能
            • service:服务层功能
            • support:各种支持类
            • web
              • api:前台API接口
              • backendapi:后台API接口
              • directive:前台Freemarker自定义标签
              • frontend:前台页面Controller
              • support:Web支持类(包括web拦截器等)
            • ContextConfig.java:Context配置类
            • LuceneConfig.java:全文索引配置类
            • ShiroConfig.java:Shiro安全配置类
            • TaskExecutorConfig.java:任务执行器配置类
          • Application.java 启动类
        • com/ujcms/util:公共工具类
      • resources
        • com/ujcms/cms/core/mapper:MyBatis Mapper XML 配置文件。
        • db
          • changelog:数据库表结构更新日志文件。
          • data.mysql.sql:数据库初始化数据SQL脚本。
        • application.yaml:程序配置文件。包括数据库URL、数据库用户名、数据库密码等信息。
        • messages.properties:国际化资源文件。
      • webapp:
        • cp:后台前端页面。
        • templates:网站前台模板。
        • uploads:用户上传文件。
        • WEB-INF/lucene:全文检索索引文件。
  • .editorconfig:设置编辑器文件的格式,如缩进方式、最大行数等。
  • .gitignore:设置不需要提交到git管理的文件和目录。
  • CHANGELOG.md:版本更新日志。
  • LICENSE:许可协议。
  • gulpfile.js:前台构建文件。具有拷贝jquery、bootstrap等文件至前台模板目录/src/main/webapp/template/1/default/_files等功能。
  • package.json:前台模板依赖的js、css组件,如jquery、bootstrap等。
  • pom.xml:Maven配置文件。
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