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README
GPL-3.0

输入图片说明

概述

分布式文件系统:Distributed file system, DFS,又叫做网络文件系统:Network File System。一种允许文件通过网络在多台主机上分享的文件系统,可让多机器上的多用户分享文件和存储空间。

FastDFS是用c语言编写的一款开源的分布式文件系统,充分考虑了冗余备份、负载均衡、线性扩容等机制,并注重高可用、高性能等指标,功能包括:文件存储、文件同步、文件访问(文件上传、文件下载)等,解决了大容量存储和负载均衡的问题。特别适合中小文件(建议范围:4KB < file_size <500MB),对以文件为载体的在线服务,如相册网站、视频网站等。

FastDFS 架构

FastDFS架构包括Tracker server和Storage server。客户端请求Tracker server进行文件上传、下载,通过Tracker server调度最终由Storage server完成文件上传和下载。

1.jpg

跟踪服务器Tracker Server

主要做调度工作,起到均衡的作用;负责管理所有的 storage server和 group,每个 storage 在启动后会连接 Tracker,告知自己所属 group 等信息,并保持周期性心跳。tracker根据storage的心跳信息,建立group==>[storage serverlist]的映射表。

Tracker需要管理的元信息很少,会全部存储在内存中;另外tracker上的元信息都是由storage汇报的信息生成的,本身不需要持久化任何数据,这样使得tracker非常容易扩展,直接增加tracker机器即可扩展为tracker cluster来服务,cluster里每个tracker之间是完全对等的,所有的tracker都接受stroage的心跳信息,生成元数据信息来提供读写服务。

存储服务器Storage Server

主要提供容量和备份服务;以 group 为单位,每个 group 内可以有多台 storage server,数据互为备份。以group为单位组织存储能方便的进行应用隔离、负载均衡、副本数定制(group内storage server数量即为该group的副本数),比如将不同应用数据存到不同的group就能隔离应用数据,同时还可根据应用的访问特性来将应用分配到不同的group来做负载均衡;缺点是group的容量受单机存储容量的限制,同时当group内有机器坏掉时,数据恢复只能依赖group内地其他机器,使得恢复时间会很长。

group内每个storage的存储依赖于本地文件系统,storage可配置多个数据存储目录,比如有10块磁盘,分别挂载在/data/disk1-/data/disk10,则可将这10个目录都配置为storage的数据存储目录。storage接受到写文件请求时,会根据配置好的规则选择其中一个存储目录来存储文件。为了避免单个目录下的文件数太多,在storage第一次启动时,会在每个数据存储目录里创建2级子目录,每级256个,总共65536个文件,新写的文件会以hash的方式被路由到其中某个子目录下,然后将文件数据作为本地文件存储到该目录中。

FastDFS的存储策略

为了支持大容量,存储节点(服务器)采用了分卷(或分组)的组织方式。存储系统由一个或多个卷组成,卷与卷之间的文件是相互独立的,所有卷的文件容量累加就是整个存储系统中的文件容量。一个卷可以由一台或多台存储服务器组成,一个卷下的存储服务器中的文件都是相同的,卷中的多台存储服务器起到了冗余备份和负载均衡的作用。

在卷中增加服务器时,同步已有的文件由系统自动完成,同步完成后,系统自动将新增服务器切换到线上提供服务。当存储空间不足或即将耗尽时,可以动态添加卷。只需要增加一台或多台服务器,并将它们配置为一个新的卷,这样就扩大了存储系统的容量。

FastDFS的上传过程

FastDFS向使用者提供基本文件访问接口,比如upload、download、append、delete等,以客户端库的方式提供给用户使用。

Storage Server会定期的向Tracker Server发送自己的存储信息。当Tracker Server Cluster中的Tracker Server不止一个时,各个Tracker之间的关系是对等的,所以客户端上传时可以选择任意一个Tracker。

当Tracker收到客户端上传文件的请求时,会为该文件分配一个可以存储文件的group,当选定了group后就要决定给客户端分配group中的哪一个storage server。当分配好storage server后,客户端向storage发送写文件请求,storage将会为文件分配一个数据存储目录。然后为文件分配一个fileid,最后根据以上的信息生成文件名存储文件。

2.jpg

选择tracker server

当集群中不止一个tracker server时,由于tracker之间是完全对等的关系,客户端在upload文件时可以任意选择一个trakcer。

选择存储的group

当tracker接收到upload file的请求时,会为该文件分配一个可以存储该文件的group,支持如下选择group的规则: 1. Round robin,所有的group间轮询 2. Specified group,指定某一个确定的group 3. Load balance,剩余存储空间多多group优先

选择storage server

当选定group后,tracker会在group内选择一个storage server给客户端,支持如下选择storage的规则: 1. Round robin,在group内的所有storage间轮询 2. First server ordered by ip,按ip排序 3. First server ordered by priority,按优先级排序(优先级在storage上配置)

选择storage path

当分配好storage server后,客户端将向storage发送写文件请求,storage将会为文件分配一个数据存储目录,支持如下规则: 1. Round robin,多个存储目录间轮询 2. 剩余存储空间最多的优先

生成Fileid

选定存储目录之后,storage会为文件生一个Fileid,由storage server ip、文件创建时间、文件大小、文件crc32和一个随机数拼接而成,然后将这个二进制串进行base64编码,转换为可打印的字符串。

选择两级目录

当选定存储目录之后,storage会为文件分配一个fileid,每个存储目录下有两级256*256的子目录,storage会按文件fileid进行两次hash(猜测),路由到其中一个子目录,然后将文件以fileid为文件名存储到该子目录下。

生成文件名

当文件存储到某个子目录后,即认为该文件存储成功,接下来会为该文件生成一个文件名,文件名由group、存储目录、两级子目录、fileid、文件后缀名(由客户端指定,主要用于区分文件类型)拼接而成。

3.jpg

FastDFS的文件同步

写文件时,客户端将文件写至group内一个storage server即认为写文件成功,storage server写完文件后,会由后台线程将文件同步至同group内其他的storage server。

每个storage写文件后,同时会写一份binlog,binlog里不包含文件数据,只包含文件名等元信息,这份binlog用于后台同步,storage会记录向group内其他storage同步的进度,以便重启后能接上次的进度继续同步;进度以时间戳的方式进行记录,所以最好能保证集群内所有server的时钟保持同步。

storage的同步进度会作为元数据的一部分汇报到tracker上,tracke在选择读storage的时候会以同步进度作为参考。

比如一个group内有A、B、C三个storage server,A向C同步到进度为T1 (T1以前写的文件都已经同步到B上了),B向C同步到时间戳为T2(T2 > T1),tracker接收到这些同步进度信息时,就会进行整理,将最小的那个做为C的同步时间戳,本例中T1即为C的同步时间戳为T1(即所有T1以前写的数据都已经同步到C上了);同理,根据上述规则,tracker会为A、B生成一个同步时间戳。

FastDFS的文件下载

客户端uploadfile成功后,会拿到一个storage生成的文件名,接下来客户端根据这个文件名即可访问到该文件。

4.jpg

跟upload file一样,在downloadfile时客户端可以选择任意tracker server。tracker发送download请求给某个tracker,必须带上文件名信息,tracke从文件名中解析出文件的group、大小、创建时间等信息,然后为该请求选择一个storage用来服务读请求。

FastDFS性能方案

5.jpg

FastDFS 安装

软件包 版本
FastDFS v5.05
libfastcommon v1.0.7

下载安装libfastcommon

  • 下载
wget https://github.com/happyfish100/libfastcommon/archive/V1.0.7.tar.gz
  • 解压
tar -xvf V1.0.7.tar.gz
cd libfastcommon-1.0.7
  • 编译、安装
./make.sh
./make.sh install
  • 创建软链接
ln -s /usr/lib64/libfastcommon.so /usr/local/lib/libfastcommon.so
ln -s /usr/lib64/libfastcommon.so /usr/lib/libfastcommon.so
ln -s /usr/lib64/libfdfsclient.so /usr/local/lib/libfdfsclient.so
ln -s /usr/lib64/libfdfsclient.so /usr/lib/libfdfsclient.so 

下载安装FastDFS

  • 下载FastDFS
 wget https://github.com/happyfish100/fastdfs/archive/V5.05.tar.gz
  • 解压
tar -xvf V5.05.tar.gz
cd fastdfs-5.05
  • 编译、安装
./make.sh
./make.sh install

配置 Tracker 服务

上述安装成功后,在/etc/目录下会有一个fdfs的目录,进入它。会看到三个.sample后缀的文件,这是作者给我们的示例文件,我们需要把其中的tracker.conf.sample文件改为tracker.conf配置文件并修改它:

cp tracker.conf.sample tracker.conf
vi tracker.conf

编辑tracker.conf

# 配置文件是否不生效,false 为生效
disabled=false

# 提供服务的端口
port=22122

# Tracker 数据和日志目录地址
base_path=//home/data/fastdfs

# HTTP 服务端口
http.server_port=80

创建tracker基础数据目录,即base_path对应的目录

mkdir -p /home/data/fastdfs

使用ln -s 建立软链接

ln -s /usr/bin/fdfs_trackerd /usr/local/bin
ln -s /usr/bin/stop.sh /usr/local/bin
ln -s /usr/bin/restart.sh /usr/local/bin

启动服务

service fdfs_trackerd start

查看监听

netstat -unltp|grep fdfs

如果看到22122端口正常被监听后,这时候说明Tracker服务启动成功啦!

tracker server 目录及文件结构 Tracker服务启动成功后,会在base_path下创建data、logs两个目录。目录结构如下:

${base_path}
  |__data
  |   |__storage_groups.dat:存储分组信息
  |   |__storage_servers.dat:存储服务器列表
  |__logs
  |   |__trackerd.log: tracker server 日志文件 

配置 Storage 服务

进入 /etc/fdfs 目录,复制 FastDFS 存储器样例配置文件 storage.conf.sample,并重命名为 storage.conf

# cd /etc/fdfs
# cp storage.conf.sample storage.conf
# vi storage.conf

编辑storage.conf

# 配置文件是否不生效,false 为生效
disabled=false

# 指定此 storage server 所在 组(卷)
group_name=group1

# storage server 服务端口
port=23000

# 心跳间隔时间,单位为秒 (这里是指主动向 tracker server 发送心跳)
heart_beat_interval=30

# Storage 数据和日志目录地址(根目录必须存在,子目录会自动生成)
base_path=/home/data/fastdfs/storage

# 存放文件时 storage server 支持多个路径。这里配置存放文件的基路径数目,通常只配一个目录。
store_path_count=1

# 逐一配置 store_path_count 个路径,索引号基于 0。
# 如果不配置 store_path0,那它就和 base_path 对应的路径一样。
store_path0=/home/data/fastdfs/storage

# FastDFS 存储文件时,采用了两级目录。这里配置存放文件的目录个数。 
# 如果本参数只为 N(如: 256),那么 storage server 在初次运行时,会在 store_path 下自动创建 N * N 个存放文件的子目录。
subdir_count_per_path=256

# tracker_server 的列表 ,会主动连接 tracker_server
# 有多个 tracker server 时,每个 tracker server 写一行
tracker_server=192.168.1.190:22122

# 允许系统同步的时间段 (默认是全天) 。一般用于避免高峰同步产生一些问题而设定。
sync_start_time=00:00
sync_end_time=23:59

使用ln -s 建立软链接

ln -s /usr/bin/fdfs_storaged /usr/local/bin

启动服务

service fdfs_storaged start

查看监听

netstat -unltp|grep fdfs

启动Storage前确保Tracker是启动的。初次启动成功,会在 /home/data/fastdfs/storage 目录下创建 data、 logs 两个目录。如果看到23000端口正常被监听后,这时候说明Storage服务启动成功啦!

查看Storage和Tracker是否在通信

/usr/bin/fdfs_monitor /etc/fdfs/storage.conf

FastDFS 配置 Nginx 模块

软件包 版本
openresty v1.13.6.1
fastdfs-nginx-module v1.1.6

FastDFS 通过 Tracker 服务器,将文件放在 Storage 服务器存储, 但是同组存储服务器之间需要进行文件复制,有同步延迟的问题。

假设 Tracker 服务器将文件上传到了 192.168.1.190,上传成功后文件 ID已经返回给客户端。此时 FastDFS 存储集群机制会将这个文件同步到同组存192.168.1.190,在文件还没有复制完成的情况下,客户端如果用这个文件 ID 在 192.168.1.190 上取文件,就会出现文件无法访问的错误。而 fastdfs-nginx-module 可以重定向文件链接到源服务器取文件,避免客户端由于复制延迟导致的文件无法访问错误。

下载 安装 Nginx 和 fastdfs-nginx-module:

推荐您使用yum安装以下的开发库:

yum install readline-devel pcre-devel openssl-devel -y

下载最新版本并解压:

wget https://openresty.org/download/openresty-1.13.6.1.tar.gz

tar -xvf openresty-1.13.6.1.tar.gz

wget https://github.com/happyfish100/fastdfs-nginx-module/archive/master.zip

unzip master.zip

配置 nginx 安装,加入fastdfs-nginx-module模块:

./configure --add-module=../fastdfs-nginx-module-master/src/

编译、安装:

make && make install

查看Nginx的模块:

/usr/local/openresty/nginx/sbin/nginx -v

有下面这个就说明添加模块成功 1.png

复制 fastdfs-nginx-module 源码中的配置文件到/etc/fdfs 目录, 并修改:

cp /fastdfs-nginx-module/src/mod_fastdfs.conf /etc/fdfs/
# 连接超时时间
connect_timeout=10

# Tracker Server
tracker_server=192.168.1.190:22122

# StorageServer 默认端口
storage_server_port=23000

# 如果文件ID的uri中包含/group**,则要设置为true
url_have_group_name = true

# Storage 配置的store_path0路径,必须和storage.conf中的一致
store_path0=/home/data/fastdfs/storage

复制 FastDFS 的部分配置文件到/etc/fdfs 目录:

cp /fastdfs-nginx-module/src/http.conf /etc/fdfs/
cp /fastdfs-nginx-module/src/mime.types /etc/fdfs/

配置nginx,修改nginx.conf:

location ~/group([0-9])/M00 {
    ngx_fastdfs_module;
}

启动Nginx:

[root@iz2ze7tgu9zb2gr6av1tysz sbin]# ./nginx
ngx_http_fastdfs_set pid=9236

测试上传:

[root@iz2ze7tgu9zb2gr6av1tysz fdfs]# /usr/bin/fdfs_upload_file /etc/fdfs/client.conf /etc/fdfs/4.jpg
group1/M00/00/00/rBD8EFqVACuAI9mcAAC_ornlYSU088.jpg

部署结构图:

5.png

JAVA 客户端集成

pom.xml引入:

<!-- fastdfs -->
<dependency>
	<groupId>org.csource</groupId>
	<artifactId>fastdfs-client-java</artifactId>
	<version>1.27</version>
</dependency>

fdfs_client.conf配置:

#连接tracker服务器超时时长
connect_timeout = 2  
#socket连接超时时长
network_timeout = 30
#文件内容编码 
charset = UTF-8 
#tracker服务器端口
http.tracker_http_port = 8080
http.anti_steal_token = no
http.secret_key = FastDFS1234567890
#tracker服务器IP和端口(可以写多个)
tracker_server = 192.168.1.190:22122 

FastDFSClient上传类:

public class FastDFSClient{
	private static final String CONFIG_FILENAME = "D:\\itstyle\\src\\main\\resources\\fdfs_client.conf";
	private static final String GROUP_NAME = "market1";
	private TrackerClient trackerClient = null;
    private TrackerServer trackerServer = null;
    private StorageServer storageServer = null;
    private StorageClient storageClient = null;

    static{
    	try {
			ClientGlobal.init(CONFIG_FILENAME);
		} catch (IOException e) {
			e.printStackTrace();
		} catch (MyException e) {
			e.printStackTrace();
		}
    }
    public FastDFSClient() throws Exception {
	   trackerClient = new TrackerClient(ClientGlobal.g_tracker_group);
	   trackerServer = trackerClient.getConnection();
	   storageServer = trackerClient.getStoreStorage(trackerServer);;
	   storageClient = new StorageClient(trackerServer, storageServer);
    }

    /**
     * 上传文件
     * @param file 文件对象
     * @param fileName 文件名
     * @return
     */
    public  String[] uploadFile(File file, String fileName) {
        return uploadFile(file,fileName,null);
    }

    /**
     * 上传文件
     * @param file 文件对象
     * @param fileName 文件名
     * @param metaList 文件元数据
     * @return
     */
    public  String[] uploadFile(File file, String fileName, Map<String,String> metaList) {
        try {
            byte[] buff = IOUtils.toByteArray(new FileInputStream(file));
            NameValuePair[] nameValuePairs = null;
            if (metaList != null) {
                nameValuePairs = new NameValuePair[metaList.size()];
                int index = 0;
                for (Iterator<Map.Entry<String,String>> iterator = metaList.entrySet().iterator(); iterator.hasNext();) {
                    Map.Entry<String,String> entry = iterator.next();
                    String name = entry.getKey();
                    String value = entry.getValue();
                    nameValuePairs[index++] = new NameValuePair(name,value);
                }
            }
            return storageClient.upload_file(GROUP_NAME,buff,fileName,nameValuePairs);
        } catch (Exception e) {
            e.printStackTrace();
        }
        return null;
    }

    /**
     * 获取文件元数据
     * @param fileId 文件ID
     * @return
     */
    public Map<String,String> getFileMetadata(String groupname,String fileId) {
        try {
            NameValuePair[] metaList = storageClient.get_metadata(groupname,fileId);
            if (metaList != null) {
                HashMap<String,String> map = new HashMap<String, String>();
                for (NameValuePair metaItem : metaList) {
                    map.put(metaItem.getName(),metaItem.getValue());
                }
                return map;
            }
        } catch (Exception e) {
            e.printStackTrace();
        }
        return null;
    }

    /**
     * 删除文件
     * @param fileId 文件ID
     * @return 删除失败返回-1,否则返回0
     */
    public int deleteFile(String groupname,String fileId) {
        try {
            return storageClient.delete_file(groupname,fileId);
        } catch (Exception e) {
            e.printStackTrace();
        }
        return -1;
    }

    /**
     * 下载文件
     * @param fileId 文件ID(上传文件成功后返回的ID)
     * @param outFile 文件下载保存位置
     * @return
     */
    public  int downloadFile(String groupName,String fileId, File outFile) {
        FileOutputStream fos = null;
        try {
            byte[] content = storageClient.download_file(groupName,fileId);
            fos = new FileOutputStream(outFile);
            InputStream ips = new ByteArrayInputStream(content); 
            IOUtils.copy(ips,fos);
            return 0;
        } catch (Exception e) {
            e.printStackTrace();
        } finally {
            if (fos != null) {
                try {
                    fos.close();
                } catch (IOException e) {
                    e.printStackTrace();
                }
            }
        }
        return -1;
    }
    public static void main(String[] args) throws Exception {
    	FastDFSClient client = new FastDFSClient();
    	File file = new File("D:\\23456.png");
        String[] result = client.uploadFile(file, "png");
        System.out.println(result.length);
        System.out.println(result[0]);
        System.out.println(result[1]);
    }
}

执行main方法测试返回:

2
group1
M00/00/00/rBD8EFqTrNyAWyAkAAKCRJfpzAQ227.png

地址:https://blog.52itstyle.com/archives/2430/

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Also add information on how to contact you by electronic and paper mail. If the program does terminal interaction, make it output a short notice like this when it starts in an interactive mode: spring-boot-fastdfs Copyright (C) 2018 小柒2012 This program comes with ABSOLUTELY NO WARRANTY; for details type `show w'. This is free software, and you are welcome to redistribute it under certain conditions; type `show c' for details. The hypothetical commands `show w' and `show c' should show the appropriate parts of the General Public License. Of course, your program's commands might be different; for a GUI interface, you would use an "about box". You should also get your employer (if you work as a programmer) or school, if any, to sign a "copyright disclaimer" for the program, if necessary. For more information on this, and how to apply and follow the GNU GPL, see [http://www.gnu.org/licenses/]. The GNU General Public License does not permit incorporating your program into proprietary programs. If your program is a subroutine library, you may consider it more useful to permit linking proprietary applications with the library. If this is what you want to do, use the GNU Lesser General Public License instead of this License. But first, please read [http://www.gnu.org/philosophy/why-not-lgpl.html].

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